In order to evaluate whether an effect is occurring in the Torah text
different from what would happen by chance in an ordinary text,
it is required that a population of ordinary texts be defined.
We call such a population of ordinary texts * Monkey Texts *
to emphasize that in the Monkey Text population, the Null hypothesis
of * No Torah Code Effect* is applicable. For the Torah text to
be special with regard to Torah codes, it must mean that the
strength of an encoding is significantly
higher (the ELSs of logically/historically related key words are in a relatively
more compact arrangement)
in the Torah text than in the texts of the Monkey text population.
The way to determine significantly higher is to compare within a sample of N randomly chosen texts.
For any given key word set, there is a test statistic called the compactness score that is computed
for the Torah text. Under the Null hypothesis of * No Torah Code Effect*,
the Torah text is in the population of Monkey texts and it is the first
one that is in the sample of texts.
Then the remaining N-1 texts from the Monkey text population are randomly
sampled.

Associated with each of the randomly sampled texts is a compactness score.
The significance of the effect in the Torah text
is measured by computing the number of texts having smaller compactness
value plus one half the number of the total texts having equal compactness score,
normalized by N the total number of texts examined.

There are a variety of different kinds of Monkey text populations that
can be defined that in some significant way bear some statistical similarity
to the Torah text. Each is created by taking the Torah text or its ELSs and
performing some kind of randomly shuffling, making whatever compactness relationships that might occur
in these texts due to pure chance.