Dr Randall Ingermanson authored the book Who Wrote the Bible Code?
In the book he presents an entropy argument that states that the entropy of the Torah skip
texts is essentially the entropy of a random text and therefore there cannot be any encoding.
The argument goes like this.
(1) "If the Torah contains so much information embedded as ELSs in the text, then the entropy of
these ELSs in the Torah must be lower than we would ordinarily expect." p 70.
(2) "If the believer's [of the Torah code hypothesis] are right, then the ELSs in each skip
text taken from the Bible will be measurably different from those you'd predict in a random text." p 86.
(3) "If their [the believer's] interpretation is correct, the Torah must be chock-full of ELSs at
many different skips. No matter which skip we consider, we ought to see many more meaningful ELSs than
random chance predicts. This means that every skip-text must contain many more meaningful words
(spelled both backward and forward) than you'd expect to see in a random text.
The digram and trigram frequencies of intentionally encoded words are different from those you'd expect
by random chance, and they result in different digram and trigram entropies than those you'd get by
random chance." p 86-87.
(4) "If the skeptics [of the Torah code hypothesis] are right, we expect that skip-texts taken
from the original will have the same distribution of words, on average, as random skip-texts provided
the skip is large enough." p 87.
Ingermanson then makes the entropy calculation for digrams and trigrams of Torah skip texts and finds that
for skips greater than around 50 the Torah skip text digrams and trigrams have the same entropy as
randomized texts. He concludes that there is no more structure in the Torah skip text ELSs than expected
by chance and, therefore, the Torah code hypothesis must be false.
In summary, Ingermanson argues that if the Torah code hypothesis is correct, [this is the premise]
there ought to be more ELSs and if there are more ELSs there will be more statistical structure or order
in the skip texts and therefore, the entropy of Torah skip texts ought to be lower than the corresponding
entropy of randomized Torah skip texts [this is the consequence].
He makes the measurements and finds that the entropy of the Torah skip texts are not lower than the
corresponding entropy of randomized Torah skip texts. Having provided evidence that the consequence
is not correct, he concludes that the premise is false.
The argument is fallacious because Ingermanson seems not to understand the Torah code hypothesis.
The Torah code hypothesis is that there are some domains of logical relationships where if one
collects together clusters of key words that are logically related from the domain, then there
will be a higher probability that there are more corresponding clusters of ELSs that are more
compact (spatially close) in the Torah text we have today than expected in a population of
randomized Torah texts.
The Torah code hypothesis does not imply as Ingermanson argues that if the Torah code hypothesis is
correct, there ought to be more ELSs of meaningful key words. The Torah code hypothesis is completely consistent with a
condition that the number and kind of ELSs are exactly what would be expected by chance.
The Torah code hypothesis states that the placement of the ELSs in the Torah text is skewed in
such a way that there is a higher frequency of ELSs of related key words that appear closer
together than expected by chance.
So basically, what Ingermanson has done is to restate the Torah code hypothesis in a way that is not
equivalent to the true Torah code hypothesis, and then he provided evidence that his restatement of the
Torah code hypothesis must be false. His evidence has no bearing on the correctness or incorrectness
of the true Torah code hypothesis.
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